The Cannons „Celtic Folk and more" Seit ist Seán Cannon die Stimme von THE DUBLINERS und damit eine lebende Legende des Irish. The Cannons. Gefällt Mal. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and bigdaddyfan.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been. Seán Cannon (* November in Galway) ist ein irischer Sänger und Gitarrist. Bekanntheit erlangte er vor allem durch seine Mitgliedschaft bei der Irish.
The CannonsThe Cannons - Seán Cannon prägte mit seiner Stimme dreißig Jahre lang den Sound der Irish Folk-Gruppe The Dubliners, welche sich in ihrer fünfzigjährigen. The Cannons „Celtic Folk and more" Seit ist Seán Cannon die Stimme von THE DUBLINERS und damit eine lebende Legende des Irish. The Cannons. K likes. The Cannons are Sean Cannon and his sons James and bigdaddyfan.com play Irish Folk songs and varied material, and have been.
The Cannons Are you a Cannon Bride? Take the quiz! VideoCannons - Fire for You (Official Video)
Pluto Maxi Taxi Allan 4 Seater Sedan Sherwin 7 Seater SUV Experience Trinidad and Tobago. Far from ordinary, our islands offer unique experiences not found anywhere in the Caribbean.
Make An Enquiry. Peek Into Our World. Carnival Packages. Panorama Apartment. For, since there are four-quarters of the earth in which we live, and four universal winds, while the church is scattered throughout all the world, and the 'pillar and ground' of the church is the gospel and the spirit of life, it is fitting that she should have four pillars breathing out immortality on every side, and vivifying men afresh Therefore the gospels are in accord with these things For the living creatures are quadriform and the gospel is quadriform These things being so, all who destroy the form of the gospel are vain, unlearned, and also audacious; those [I mean] who represent the aspects of the gospel as being either more in number than as aforesaid, or, on the other hand, fewer.
By the early 3rd century, Christian theologians like Origen of Alexandria may have been using—or at least were familiar with—the same 27 books found in modern New Testament editions, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of some of the writings see also Antilegomena.
Origen's canon included all of the books in the current New Testament canon except for four books: James , 2nd Peter , and the 2nd and 3rd epistles of John.
He also included the Shepherd of Hermas which was later rejected. The religious scholar Bruce Metzger described Origen's efforts, saying "The process of canonization represented by Origen proceeded by way of selection, moving from many candidates for inclusion to fewer.
In his Easter letter of , Patriarch Athanasius of Alexandria gave a list of exactly the same books that would become the New Testament —27 book—proto-canon,  and used the phrase "being canonized" kanonizomena in regard to them.
However, from this canon, he omitted the Book of Esther. Athanasius  recorded Alexandrian scribes around preparing Bibles for Constans.
Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus are examples of these Bibles.
Those codices contain almost a full version of the Septuagint ; Vaticanus is only lacking 1—3 Maccabees and Sinaiticus is lacking 2—3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras , Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah.
There is no evidence among the canons of the First Council of Nicaea of any determination on the canon , however, Jerome , in his Prologue to Judith , makes the claim that the Book of Judith was "found by the Nicene Council to have been counted among the number of the Sacred Scriptures".
The Eastern Churches had, in general, a weaker feeling than those in the West for the necessity of making sharp delineations with regard to the canon.
They were more conscious of the gradation of spiritual quality among the books that they accepted for example, the classification of Eusebius, see also Antilegomena and were less often disposed to assert that the books which they rejected possessed no spiritual quality at all.
For example, the Trullan Synod of — , which Pope Sergius I in office — rejected  see also Pentarchy , endorsed the following lists of canonical writings: the Apostolic Canons c.
Similarly, the New Testament canons of the Syriac , Armenian , Georgian , Egyptian Coptic and Ethiopian Churches all have minor differences, yet five of these Churches are part of the same communion and hold the same theological beliefs.
The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition. Most of the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament are found in the Syriac, and the Wisdom of Sirach is held to have been translated from the Hebrew and not from the Septuagint.
Pusey d. A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Council of Carthage and also the Council of Carthage Augustine — , who regarded the canon as already closed.
Augustine of Hippo declared without qualification that one is to "prefer those that are received by all Catholic Churches to those which some of them do not receive" On Christian Doctrines 2.
In the same passage, Augustine asserted that these dissenting churches should be outweighed by the opinions of "the more numerous and weightier churches", which would include Eastern Churches, the prestige of which Augustine stated moved him to include the Book of Hebrews among the canonical writings, though he had reservation about its authorship.
Philip Schaff says that "the council of Hippo in , and the third according to another reckoning the sixth council of Carthage in , under the influence of Augustine, who attended both, fixed the catholic canon of the Holy Scriptures, including the Apocrypha of the Old Testament, This decision of the transmarine church however, was subject to ratification; and the concurrence of the Roman see it received when Innocent I and Gelasius I A.
This canon remained undisturbed till the sixteenth century, and was sanctioned by the council of Trent at its fourth session.
Augustine , who regarded the canon as already closed. Pope Damasus I 's Council of Rome in if the Decretum issued a biblical canon identical to that mentioned above.
In a letter c. In the 5th century the East too, with a few exceptions, came to accept the Book of Revelation and thus came into harmony on the matter of the New Testament canon.
As the canon crystallised, non-canonical texts fell into relative disfavour and neglect. Before the Protestant Reformation , there was the Council of Florence — During the life, and with the approval of this council, Eugenius IV issued several Bulls, or decrees, with a view to restore the Oriental schismatic bodies to communion with Rome, and according to the common teaching of theologians these documents are infallible statements of doctrine.
The "Decretum pro Jacobitis" contains a complete list of the books received by the Church as inspired, but omits, perhaps advisedly, the terms canon and canonical.
The Council of Florence therefore taught the inspiration of all the Scriptures, but did not formally pass on their canonicity.
It was not until the Protestant Reformers began to insist upon the supreme authority of Scripture alone the doctrine of sola scriptura that it became necessary to establish a dogmatic canon.
Martin Luther — moved seven Old Testament books Tobit, Judith, 1—2 Maccabees, Book of Wisdom, Sirach, and Baruch into a section he called the " Apocrypha , that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read".
Luther removed the books of Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation from the canon partially because some were perceived to go against certain Protestant doctrines such as sola scriptura and sola fide ,  [ failed verification ] while defenders of Luther cite previous scholarly precedent and support as the justification for his marginalization of certain books,  including 2 Maccabees  Luther's smaller canon was not fully accepted in Protestantism, though apocryphal books are ordered last in the German-language Luther Bible to this day.
All of these apocrypha are called anagignoskomena by the Eastern Orthodox per the Synod of Jerusalem. The Anglican Communion accepts "the Apocrypha for instruction in life and manners, but not for the establishment of doctrine",  and many "lectionary readings in The Book of Common Prayer are taken from the Apocrypha", with these lessons being "read in the same ways as those from the Old Testament".
In light of Martin Luther 's demands, the Council of Trent on 8 April approved the present Catholic Bible canon, which includes the Deuterocanonical Books , and the decision was confirmed by an anathema by vote 24 yea, 15 nay, 16 abstain.
Beyond these books, the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate contained in the Appendix several books considered as apocryphal by the council: Prayer of Manasseh , 3 Esdras , and 4 Esdras.
Several Protestant confessions of faith identify the 27 books of the New Testament canon by name, including the French Confession of Faith ,  the Belgic Confession , and the Westminster Confession of Faith The Belgic Confession  and Westminster Confession named the 39 books in the Old Testament and, apart from the aforementioned New Testament books, expressly rejected the canonicity of any others.
The Lutheran Epitome of the Formula of Concord of declared that the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures comprised the Old and New Testaments alone.
Various books that were never canonized by any church, but are known to have existed in antiquity, are similar to the New Testament and often claim apostolic authorship, are known as the New Testament apocrypha.
Some of these writings have been cited as scripture by early Christians, but since the fifth century a widespread consensus has emerged limiting the New Testament to the 27 books of the modern canon.
Other traditions, while also having closed canons, may not be able to point to an exact year in which their canons were complete. The following tables reflect the current state of various Christian canons.
Among Aramaic speakers, the Targum was also widely used. All of the major Christian traditions accept the books of the Hebrew protocanon in its entirety as divinely inspired and authoritative, in various ways and degrees.
Another set of books, largely written during the intertestamental period , are called the biblical apocrypha "hidden things" by Protestants, the deuterocanon "second canon" by Catholics, and the deuterocanon or anagignoskomena "worthy of reading" by Orthodox.
These are works recognized by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Churches as being part of scripture and thus deuterocanonical rather than apocryphal , but Protestants do not recognize them as divinely inspired.
Orthodox differentiate scriptural books by omitting these and others from corporate worship and from use as a sole basis for doctrine.
Many denominations recognize deuterocanonical books as good, but not on the level of the other books of the Bible. Anglicanism considers the apocrypha worthy of being "read for example of life" but not to be used "to establish any doctrine.
The difference in canons derives from the difference in the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint. Books found in both the Hebrew and the Greek are accepted by all denominations, and by Jews, these are the protocanonical books.
Catholics and Orthodox also accept those books present in manuscripts of the Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament with great currency among the Jews of the ancient world, with the coda that Catholics consider 3 Esdras and 3 Maccabees apocryphal.
Most quotations of the Old Testament in the New Testament, differing by varying degrees from the Masoretic Text, are taken from the Septuagint.
Daniel was written several hundred years after the time of Ezra, and since that time several books of the Septuagint have been found in the original Hebrew, in the Dead Sea Scrolls , the Cairo Geniza , and at Masada , including a Hebrew text of Sirach Qumran, Masada and an Aramaic text of Tobit Qumran ; the additions to Esther and Daniel are also in their respective Semitic languages.
The unanimous consensus of modern and ancient scholars consider several other books, including 1 Maccabees and Judith, to have been composed in Hebrew or Aramaic.
Some books listed here, like the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs for the Armenian Apostolic Church, may have once been a vital part of a Biblical tradition, may even still hold a place of honor, but are no longer considered to be part of the Bible.
Other books, like the Prayer of Manasseh for the Roman Catholic Church, may have been included in manuscripts, but never really attained a high level of importance within that particular tradition.
The levels of traditional prominence for others, like Psalms — and the Psalms of Solomon of the Syriac churches, remain unclear.
However, it is not always clear as to how these writings are arranged or divided. In some lists, they may simply fall under the title "Jeremiah", while in others, they are divided in various ways into separate books.
Moreover, the book of Proverbs is divided into two books—Messale Prov. Additionally, while the books of Jubilees and Enoch are fairly well known among western scholars, 1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan are not.
The three books of Meqabyan are often called the "Ethiopian Maccabees", but are completely different in content from the books of Maccabees that are known or have been canonized in other traditions.
Finally, the Book of Joseph ben Gurion, or Pseudo-Josephus , is a history of the Jewish people thought to be based upon the writings of Josephus.
Additional books accepted by the Syriac Orthodox Church due to inclusion in the Peshitta :. The Ethiopian Tewahedo church accepts all of the deuterocanonical books of Catholicism and anagignoskomena of Eastern Orthodoxy except for the four Books of Maccabees.
Protestants and Catholics  use the Masoretic Text of the Jewish Tanakh as the textual basis for their translations of the protocanonical books those accepted as canonical by both Jews and all Christians , with various changes derived from a multiplicity of other ancient sources such as the Septuagint , the Vulgate , the Dead Sea Scrolls , etc.
The Eastern Orthodox use the Septuagint translated in the 3rd century BCE as the textual basis for the entire Old Testament in both protocanonical and deuteroncanonical books—to use both in the Greek for liturgical purposes, and as the basis for translations into the vernacular.
The spelling and names in both the — Douay Old Testament and in the Rheims New Testament and the revision by Bishop Challoner the edition currently in print used by many Catholics, and the source of traditional Catholic spellings in English and in the Septuagint differ from those spellings and names used in modern editions that derive from the Hebrew Masoretic text.
The King James Version references some of these books by the traditional spelling when referring to them in the New Testament, such as "Esaias" for Isaiah.
In the spirit of ecumenism more recent Catholic translations e. The order of the books of the Torah are universal through all denominations of Judaism and Christianity.
Among the various Christian denominations , the New Testament canon is a generally agreed-upon list of 27 books. However, the way in which those books are arranged may vary from tradition to tradition.
For instance, in the Slavonic, Orthodox Tewahedo, Syriac, and Armenian traditions, the New Testament is ordered differently from what is considered to be the standard arrangement.
However, those books are included in certain Bibles of the modern Syriac traditions. Other New Testament works that are generally considered apocryphal nonetheless appear in some Bibles and manuscripts.
For instance, the Epistle to the Laodiceans [note 5] was included in numerous Latin Vulgate manuscripts, in the eighteen German Bibles prior to Luther's translation, and also a number of early English Bibles, such as Gundulf's Bible and John Wycliffe's English translation—even as recently as , William Whiston considered this epistle to be genuinely Pauline.
Likewise, the Third Epistle to the Corinthians [note 6] was once considered to be part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible,  but is no longer printed in modern editions.
Within the Syriac Orthodox tradition, the Third Epistle to the Corinthians also has a history of significance. Both Aphrahat and Ephraem of Syria held it in high regard and treated it as if it were canonical.
The Didache , [note 7] The Shepherd of Hermas , [note 8] and other writings attributed to the Apostolic Fathers , were once considered scriptural by various early Church fathers.
They are still being honored in some traditions, though they are no longer considered to be canonical. However, certain canonical books within the Orthodox Tewahedo traditions find their origin in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers as well as the Ancient Church Orders.
The Orthodox Tewahedo churches recognize these eight additional New Testament books in its broader canon.
They are as follows: the four books of Sinodos, the two books of the Covenant, Ethiopic Clement, and the Ethiopic Didascalia.
The Standard Works are printed and distributed by the LDS church in a single binding called a "Quadruple Combination" or a set of two books, with the Bible in one binding , and the other three books in a second binding called a "Triple Combination".
Current editions of the Standard Works include a bible dictionary , photographs, maps and gazetteer , topical guide, index, footnotes, cross references, excerpts from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible and other study aids.
Some accept only portions of the Standard Works. For instance, the Bickertonite sect does not consider the Pearl of Great Price or Doctrines and Covenants to be scriptural.
Rather, they believe that the New Testament scriptures contain a true description of the church as established by Jesus Christ, and that both the King James Bible and Book of Mormon are the inspired word of God.
Others have purportedly received additional revelation. The Community of Christ points to Jesus Christ as the living Word of God,  and it affirms the Bible, along with the Book of Mormon, as well as its own regularly appended version of Doctrines and Covenants as scripture for the church.
The Book of Commandments is accepted as being superior to the Doctrine and Covenants as a compendium of Joseph Smith's early revelations, but is not accorded the same status as the Bible or Book of Mormon.
The latter title messages contains the entirety of the former's material 30 msgs. Draves by this same being, after Fetting's death.
Neither are accepted by the larger Temple Lot body of believers. They also hold the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible to be inspired, but do not believe modern publications of the text are accurate.
Other portions of The Pearl of Great Price, however, are not considered to be scriptural—though are not necessarily fully rejected either. The Book of Jasher was consistently used by both Joseph Smith and James Strang , but as with other Latter Day Saint denominations and sects, there is no official stance on its authenticity, and it is not considered canonical.
An additional work called The Book of the Law of the Lord is also accepted as inspired scripture by the Strangites.
They likewise hold as scriptural several prophecies, visions, revelations, and translations printed by James Strang, and published in the Revelations of James J.
Among other things, this text contains his purported " Letter of Appointment " from Joseph Smith and his translation of the Voree plates.
However, the revelation on tithing section in the edition; in modern LDS editions is emphatically rejected by members of this church, as it is not believed to be given by Joseph Smith.
The Book of Abraham is rejected as scripture, as are the other portions of the Pearl of Great Price that do not appear in the Inspired Version of the Bible.
Many Latter Day Saint denominations have also either adopted the Articles of Faith or at least view them as a statement of basic theology.
At times, the Articles have been adapted to fit the respective belief systems of various faith communities.
Media related to Development of the Christian biblical canon at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the edition of the Bible without chapters and verses, see The Books of the Bible.
Set of texts which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture. Canons and books.
Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Christian biblical canons. Deuterocanon Antilegomena. Authorship and development. Authorship Dating Hebrew canon. Pauline epistles Petrine epistles.
Translations and manuscripts. Biblical studies. Hermeneutics Pesher Midrash Pardes. Allegorical interpretation Historical-grammatical method Literalism.
Gnostic Islamic Quranic. We are Ohio Wedding Photographers who are on a mission to provide a one of a kind experience through service that goes above and beyond from the moment we say hello for years to come!
Is your wedding outside of Ohio? We can come to you! If you're looking for photographers who will serve you with all their heart, then you have come to the right place!
We are husband and wife wedding photographers serving Cleveland, Ohio and beyond. Believe it or not, Robert wished on a star that we would get married when we were Well, here we are and we can't wait to hear your special story!
They were more than just our photographers. They helped us plan our timeline of our event, and were always available if we had any questions throughout the whole wedding planning process.
We received so many compliments from our bridal party, parents, and guests on how amazing they were! Courtney and Robert are simply the best!
The " Quaker Gun trick" was used by Colonel William Washington 's Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War ; in , approximately Loyalists surrendered to them, rather than face bombardment.
The decoy cannon were painted black at the "muzzle", and positioned behind fortifications to delay Union attacks on those positions. On occasion, real gun carriages were used to complete the deception.
Cannon sounds have sometimes been used in classical pieces with a military theme. One of the best known examples of such a piece is Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 's Overture.
Cannon recovered from the sea are often extensively damaged from exposure to salt water; because of this, electrolytic reduction treatment is required to forestall the process of corrosion.
A coat of polyurethane may also be painted over the wax sealant, to prevent the wax-coated cannon from attracting dust in outdoor displays.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Heavy guns or artillery. For other uses, see Cannon disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Canon. Main article: History of cannon. Further information on the historical use of gunpowder in general: History of gunpowder and Timeline of the Gunpowder Age.
Main article: Gunpowder artillery in the Song dynasty. Further information on development of gunpowder warfare in China: Science and technology of the Song dynasty.
Main article: Gunpowder artillery in the Middle Ages. Main article: Artillery. Main article: Autocannon. Main article: Cannon operation. Play media.
Main articles: Quaker gun and Military deception. Warfare in Early Modern Europe — Korean Broadcasting System. Retrieved 27 July A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian.
Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Webster's Dictionary. Retrieved 26 May Online Etymology Dictionary. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Retrieved 30 October Early Gunpowder Artillery: — Marlborough: The Crowood Press.
History of Yuan. Grant Battle: a visual journey through 5, years of combat illustrated ed. DK Pub. World History of Warfare.
University of Nebraska Press. Virtual stamp Collection. Grose Educational Media, Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 22 September Science and civilisation in China, Volume 5, Part 7.
Cambridge University Press. Hall, "Introduction, " p. A history of Greek fire and gunpowder. JHU Press. Greenwood Press. Osprey Publishing.
Medieval Russian Fortresses AD — Russia and the Russians: A History. Harvard University Press. The Walls of Constantinople AD — The People's Almanac.
Ahmad Y Hassan. Archived from the original on 26 February Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 17 February Journal of Asian History.
Hammer , Warfare in Early Modern Europe — , p. Furthermore, most of these testimonies are given by later chroniclers of the fifteenth century whose use of terminology may have reflected their own time rather than that of the events they were writing about.
Journal of World History. War in Human Civilization. Indian Journal of History of Science : — Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.
Iranian Studies. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. The History of Java [Repr. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
S Penerbit USM. The China Review. Arts Asiatiques. Leiden: Brill. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. The Hakluyt Society.
A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Bradbury and Evans. The Journal of Military History. Social Scientist. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Weapons: A Pictorial History. Guinness Rekordbok in Swedish. Stockholm: Forum. Russian Fortresses, — The Art of War.
Chicago, Ill. Dorling Kindersley. Spanish Main: — Flodden Scotland's Greatest Defeat. Retrieved 13 March The Art of War in the Western World. Rarioria, vol.
III; "Books on Fireworks". A Treatise on Artificial Fire-Works. Jones for Richard Hawkins. The Vauban Fortifications of France.
Courier Dover Publications. Discovering the Great South Land. Kenthurst : Rosenberg Publishing. Washington, D.
The Historical Maritime Society. Archived from the original on 16 May The Age of Napoleon. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Basic Books. The Waterloo Campaign: June Da Capo Press. London: Charles Knight. The Campaigns of Napoleon.