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Prayer Times. Outdoor games were very popular during holidays and fairs and were played by all classes. Many of these games are the predecessors of modern sports and lawn games.
Boules , Lawn Billiards later brought indoors as Billiards , Skittles an ancestor of modern ten pin Bowling , medieval football , Kolven , Stoolball an ancestor of Cricket , Jeu de paume early racket-less tennis , Horseshoes and Quoits all predate the early modern era.
Modern chess rules began taking shape in Spain and Italy during the 15th century with the adoption of the standard Queen and Bishop movements initially called "Mad Queen chess".
Chess was the favored game of Voltaire , Rousseau , Benjamin Franklin and Napoleon. In , the first international chess tournament was held in London and won by Adolf Anderssen.
Soon after modern time control rules were adopted for competitive play. The first Official World Chess Championship was held in in the United States and won by Wilhelm Steinitz.
By the 20th century, the game of Chess had developed into a professional sport with chess clubs, publications, player ratings and chess tournaments.
The World Chess Federation FIDE was founded in in Paris. A large number of Chess variants were also developed, with varying pieces , rules, boards and scoring.
Among them are Kriegspiel , Capablanca Chess , Alice Chess , Circular chess , Three-dimensional chess , Hexagonal Chess , Chess with different armies , and Bobby Fischer 's Chess In Japan , Go and Shogi became the major board games played at a professional level.
Both games were promoted in Japan by the Tokugawa shogunate in the 17th century, and top players Meijin received government endowments.
During the 20th century the Japan Shogi Association and the Japan Go Association were founded and began organizing professional tournaments.
During the Qing dynasty , many Xiangqi clubs were formed and books published. The Chinese Xiangqi Association was formed in , and Xiangqi tournaments are held worldwide by national Xiangqi associations.
In the first Mind Sports Olympiad was held in London and included traditional as well as modern board games.
Other board games such as Backgammon , Scrabble and Risk are also played professionally with dedicated world championships. A similar German race game, Mensch ärgere dich nicht "Man, don't get annoyed" , became immensely popular with German troops during World War I.
Another Indian game which was adopted by the West was Gyan chauper a. Moksha Patam , popularly known as snakes and ladders.
This was a game which was intended to teach lessons about karma and good and bad actions, the ladders represented virtues and the snakes vices.
The moral lesson of the game was that spiritual liberation, or Moksha could only be achieved through virtuous action, while vice led to endless reincarnation.
The game dates to medieval India where it was played by Jains and Hindus. A Buddhist version, known as "ascending the [spiritual] levels" Tibetan: sa gnon rnam bzhags is played in Nepal and Tibet  while a Muslim version of the game played during the mughal period from the late 17th or early 18th centuries featured the names of God.
The game was first brought to Victorian England and it was published in the United States as Chutes and Ladders an "improved new version of England's famous indoor sport" by game pioneer Milton Bradley in The first board game for which the name of its designer is known is 'A Journey Through Europe or the Play of Geography', a map-based game published in by John Jefferys , a Geography and writing teacher.
The first board game published in the United States was 'Traveller's Tour Through the United States', published by New York City bookseller F.
Lockwood in The earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality and included The Mansion of Happiness and The Game of Pope or Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army While demonstrating the commercial viability of the ancient race game format, its moralistic overtones were countered by Milton Bradley in with the introduction of a radically different concept of success in The Checkered Game of Life , in which material successes came as a result of accomplishments such as attending college, marrying, and getting rich.
Likewise the Game of the District Messenger Boy also focused on secular capitalist virtues rather than the religious. First patented in , The Landlord's Game , designed by Elizabeth Magie ,  was originally intended to illustrate the economic consequences of Ricardo's Law of Economic rent and the Georgist concept of a single tax on land value.
By , a board game had been created much like the version of modern Monopoly by the Parker Brothers. Though the first commercial version of the game of Battleship was Salvo , published in in the United States by the Starex company, the game itself dates to before World War I when it was played on paper by Russian officers.
L'Attaque was subsequently adapted by the Chinese into Luzhanqi or Lu Zhan Jun Qi , and by Milton Bradley into Stratego , the latter having been trademarked in while the former remains in the public domain.
Jury Box , published in , was the first murder mystery game which served as the basis for games like Cluedo. Initially designed in , Scrabble received its first mass-market exposure in , two years prior to the release of Diplomacy , in Diplomacy was a game favored by John F.
Kennedy , and Henry Kissinger. Starting with Gettysburg in , the company Avalon Hill developed particular board wargames covering specific historical themes such as Midway , D-Day and PanzerBlitz.
Board wargames such as Squad Leader , Tactics and Europa developed extremely complex and realistic rules. Avalon Hill's Civilization introduced the use of the technology tree or "tech tree" , variants of which have been implemented in numerous later board and video games such as Sid Meier's Civilization.
Recent wargames such as 'A distant plain', 'Labyrinth' and the satirical War on Terror have focused on counterinsurgency and contemporary terrorism.
A concentrated design movement towards the German-style board game , or Eurogame , began in the late s and early s in Germany,  and led to the development of board games such as Carcassone , The Settlers of Catan , Agricola , Ticket to ride and Puerto Rico.
During the 15th century card suits began to approach the contemporary regional styles and the court cards evolved to represent European royalty.
Early European card games included Noddy , Triomphe , All Fours , Piquet , Basset , Hofamterspiel , Karnöffel , and Primero.
In Charles Cotton published his Compleat Gamester , one of the first books which set out to outline rules for many card and dice games. During the mid 16th century, Portuguese traders introduced playing cards to Japan.
The first reference to twenty-one , the precursor of Blackjack is found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes.
The game is named for Mehen, a snake-god, and the gameboard is shaped like a coiled snake. The pieces come in two types: small spheres similar to marbles and ivory pieces in the shapes of lions and lionesses.
Backgammon is another ancient game that is even older than Chess. In , archaeologists discovered a gameboard in the ancient city of Shahr-e Sukhteh in Iran resembling the game of Backgammon.
The oldest video game brand is Atari, and the oldest video game is Atari's Pong. Backgammon is thought to be the oldest game.
Either Backgammon or Senet is the oldest board game. The Rose Bowl started in and is the oldest bowl game. The oldest game in the world is Mancala that originated in Australia by its natives.
The oldest card is from the 's and it is in the British museum. The oldest known Valentine's Day card is part of the collections of the British Museum, located in London, England.
Senet, an ancestor of backgammon is the oldest game in the world. It was played in Ancient Egypt around BC. A game cartridge for the DS is called a game card.
The oldest commercially released game console was the Magnavox Odyssey. It was first released in The world's oldest game that is played with a stick and a ball is known as polo.
The Rose Bowl is the most famous and oldest college football game. Basset Gilet Minchiate Primo visto Reversis Trappola Thirty-One. Conquian Ombre Primero.
Categories : 15th-century card games Karnöffel group German card games French deck card games German deck card games Four-player card games German deck plain-trick games.
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One interesting feature of the French dominance of playing cards in this time is the attention given to court cards.
In the late s French manufacturers began giving the court cards names from famous literary epics such as the Bible and other classics.
It is from this era that the custom developed of associating specific court cards with famous names, the more well-known and commonly accepted ones for the Kings being King David Spades , Alexander the Great Clubs , Charlemagne Hearts , and Julius Caesar Diamonds , representing the four empires of Jews, Greeks, Franks, and Romans.
Notable characters ascribed to the Queens include the Greek goddess Pallas Athena Spades , Judith Hearts , Jacob's wife Rachel Diamonds , and Argine Clubs.
The common postures, clothing, and accessories that we expect in a modern deck of playing cards today find their roots in characters like these, but we cannot be certain how these details originated, since there was much diversity of clothing, weapons, and accessories depicted in the French decks of this time.
But eventually standardization began to happen, and this was accelerated in the s when taxing on playing cards was introduced.
With France divided into nine regions for this purpose, manufacturers within each region were ordered to use a standardized design unique to their region.
But it was only when playing cards emigrated to England that a common design really began to dominate the playing card industry. Our journey across the channel actually begins in Belgium, from where massive quantities of cards began to be exported to England, although soldiers from France may also have helped introduce playing cards to England.
Due to heavy taxes in France, some influential card makers emigrated to Belgium, and several card factories and workshops began to appear there.
Rouen in particular was an important center of the printing trade. Thousands of decks of Belgian made playing cards were exported to countries throughout Europe, including England.
In view of this, it is no surprise that English card players have virtually always been using the French designs.
But playing cards did not pass through Europe without the English leaving their stamp on them. To begin with, they opted to use the names hearts, spades, diamonds, and clubs to refer to the suits that the French had designated as coeurs, piques, carreaux, and trefles.
We do not know why, but they based two of the suit names spades and clubs on the names of the Italian deck rather than directly translate the French terms piques pikes and trefles clovers ; one possible explanation is the Spanish suits were exported to England before French ones.
The word diamond is also somewhat unexpected, given that the English word for carreau wax-painted tiles used in churches at the time was lozenge.
Whatever the reasons, it is to usage in England that we owe the names that we use for the suits today. The English government passed an Act that cards could not leave the factory until they had proof that the required tax on playing cards had been paid.
This initially involved hand stamping the Ace of Spades - probably because it was the top card. But to prevent tax evasion, in it was decided that from now on the Ace of Spades had to be purchased from the Commissioners for Stamp Duties, and that it had to be specially printed along with the manufacturer's name and the amount of duty paid.
As a result, the Ace of Spades tended to have elaborate designs along with the manufacturer's name.