Bulgarien MГјnzen

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Export all coordinates as KML. Export all coordinates as GeoRSS. Export all coordinates as GPX. Map all microformatted coordinates. Following the cooling of the relations with Russia , and the country's EU accession , the opinion on significant Bulgar genetic impact, was launched among nationalist circles, that lately have downplayed the country's Slavic ancestry.

According to a triple analysis — autosomal , mitochondrial and paternal — of available data from large-scale studies on Balto -Slavs and their proximal populations, the whole genome SNP data situates Bulgarians in a cluster with Romanians , Macedonians and Gagauzes , and they are at similar proximity to Montenegrins and Serbs.

The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in After the adoption of Orthodox Christianity in it became one of the cultural centres of Slavic Europe. Its leading cultural position was consolidated with the invention of the Cyrillic script in its capital Preslav at the eve of the 10th century.

In Bulgaria lost its independence and remained a Byzantine subject until , when the Second Bulgarian Empire was created.

Thus, Bulgarians, like other Christians, were subjected to heavy taxes and a small portion of the Bulgarian populace experienced partial or complete Islamisation.

To the common people, belonging to this Orthodox commonwealth became more important than their ethnic origins. During the second half of the 18th century, the Enlightenment in Western Europe provided influence for the initiation of the National awakening of Bulgaria in Some Bulgarians supported the Russian Army when they crossed the Danube in the middle of the 18th century.

Russia worked to convince them to settle in areas recently conquered by it, especially in Bessarabia. As a consequence, many Bulgarian colonists settled there, and later they formed two military regiments, as part of the Russian military colonization of the area in — During the Russo-Turkish Wars — and — Bulgarian emigrants formed the Bulgarian Countrymen's Army and joined the Russian army , hoping Russia would bring Bulgarian liberation, but its imperial interests were focused then on Greece and Valachia.

The Bulgarians wanted to have their own schools and liturgy in Bulgarian, and they needed an independent ecclesiastical organisation.

Discontent with the supremacy of the Greek Orthodox clergy, the struggle started to flare up in several Bulgarian dioceses in the s.

It was not until the s when the Bulgarians initiated a purposeful struggle against the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The struggle between the Bulgarians and the Greek Phanariotes intensified throughout the s.

In the Vatican and the Ottoman government recognized a separate Bulgarian Uniat Church. As the Greek clerics were ousted from most Bulgarian bishoprics at the end of the decade, significant areas had been seceded from the Patriarchate's control.

This movement restored the distinct Bulgarian national consciousness among the common people and led to the recognition of the Bulgarian Millet in by the Ottomans.

As result, two armed struggle movements started to develop as late as the beginning of the s: the Internal Revolutionary Organisation and the Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee.

Their armed struggle reached its peak with the April Uprising which broke out in It resulted in the Russo-Turkish War — , and led to the foundation of the third Bulgarian state after the Treaty of San Stefano.

The issue of Bulgarian nationalism gained greater significance, following the Congress of Berlin which took back the regions of Macedonia and Adrianople area, returning them under the control of the Ottoman Empire.

Also an autonomous Ottoman province, called Eastern Rumelia was created in northern Thrace. As a consequence, the Bulgarian national movement proclaimed as its aim the inclusion of most of Macedonia , Thrace and Moesia under Greater Bulgaria.

Eastern Rumelia was annexed to Bulgaria in through bloodless revolution. During the early s, two pro-Bulgarian revolutionary organizations were founded: the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization and the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee.

In they participated in the unsuccessful Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans in Macedonia and the Adrianople vilayet. Macedonian Slavs were identified then predominantly as Bulgarians, and significant Bulgarophile sentiments endured up among them until the end of the Second World War.

In the early 20th century the control over Macedonia became a key point of contention between Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia , who fought the First Balkan War of — and the Second Balkan War of The area was further fought over during the World War I — and the World War II — There are significant Bulgarian minorities in Serbia , Turkey , Albania , Romania Banat Bulgarians , as well as in Ukraine and Moldova see Bessarabian Bulgarians.

Many Bulgarians also live in the diaspora, which is formed by representatives and descendants of the old before and new after emigration.

The old emigration was made up of some 2,, [ citation needed ] economic and several tens of thousands of political emigrants, and was directed for the most part to the U.

The new emigration is estimated at some , people and can be divided into two major subcategories: permanent emigration at the beginning of the s, directed mostly to the U.

Migrations to the West have been quite steady even in the late s and early 21st century, as people continue moving to countries like the US, Canada and Australia.

Most Bulgarians living in Canada can be found in Toronto, Ontario, and the provinces with the most Bulgarians in Canada are Ontario and Quebec. According to the census there were 1,, Bulgarian citizens in the city of Sofia , [] , in Plovdiv , , in Varna and about , in Burgas.

The total number of Bulgarians stood at over 9 million. Bulgarians are considered most closely related to the neighbouring Macedonians.

The greater part of these people were also considered Bulgarians by most ethnographers until the early 20th century and beyond. Bulgarians speak a Southern Slavic language which is mutually intelligible with Macedonian and to a lesser degree with Serbo-Croatian , especially the eastern dialects.

Bulgarian demonstrates some linguistic developments that set it apart from other Slavic languages shared with Romanian , Albanian and Greek see Balkan language area.

Bulgarian was influenced lexically by medieval and modern Greek , and Turkish. Medieval Bulgarian influenced the other South Slavic languages and Romanian.

With Bulgarian and Russian there was a mutual influence in both directions. Both languages were official or a lingua franca of each other during the Middle Ages and the Cold War.

Recently, Bulgarian has borrowed many words from German, French and English. The Bulgarian language is spoken by the majority of the Bulgarian diaspora , but less so by the descendants of earlier emigrants to the U.

Bulgarian linguists consider the officialized Macedonian language since a local variation of Bulgarian, just as most ethnographers and linguists until the early 20th century considered the local Slavic speech in the Macedonian region.

The president of Bulgaria Zhelyu Zhelev , declined to recognize Macedonian as a separate language when the Republic of Macedonia became a new independent state.

The Bulgarian language is written in the Cyrillic script. In the first half of the 10th century, the Cyrillic script was devised in the Preslav Literary School , Bulgaria , based on the Glagolitic , the Greek and Latin alphabets.

Modern versions of the alphabet are now used to write five more Slavic languages such as Belarusian , Macedonian , Russian, Serbian and Ukrainian as well as Mongolian and some other 60 languages spoken in the former Soviet Union.

Medieval Bulgaria was the most important cultural centre of the Slavic peoples at the end of the 9th and throughout the 10th century. The two literary schools of Preslav and Ohrid developed a rich literary and cultural activity with authors of the rank of Constantine of Preslav , John Exarch , Chernorizets Hrabar , Clement and Naum of Ohrid.

Bulgaria exerted similar influence on her neighbouring countries in the mid- to late 14th century, at the time of the Tarnovo Literary School , with the work of Patriarch Evtimiy , Gregory Tsamblak , Constantine of Kostenets Konstantin Kostenechki.

Bulgarian cultural influence was especially strong in Wallachia and Moldova where the Cyrillic script was used until , while Church Slavonic was the official language of the princely chancellery and of the church until the end of the 17th century.

There are several different layers of Bulgarian names. The vast majority of them have either Christian names like Lazar, Ivan , Anna, Maria, Ekaterina or Slavic origin Vladimir, Svetoslav, Velislava.

After the Liberation in , the names of historical Bulgar rulers like Asparuh , Krum , Kubrat and Tervel were resurrected. The old Bulgar name Boris has spread from Bulgaria to a number of countries in the world.

This is sometimes transcribed as -off or -of John Atanasov— John Atanasoff , but more often as -ov e. Boyko Borisov.

Bulgarian middle names are patronymic and use the gender- agreeing suffix as well, thus the middle name of Nikola's son becomes Nikolov , and the middle name of Ivan's son becomes Ivanov.

Another typical Bulgarian surname suffix, though less common, is -ski. This surname ending also gets an —a when the bearer of the name is female Smirnenski becomes Smirnenska.

The plural form of the surname suffix -ski is still -ski , e. The ending —in female -ina also appears rarely. It used to be given to the child of an unmarried woman for example the son of Kuna will get the surname Kunin and the son of Gana — Ganin.

The surname suffix -ich can be found only occasionally, primarily among the Roman Catholic Bulgarians. The surname ending —ich does not get an additional —a if the bearer of the name is female.

Most Bulgarians are at least nominally members of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church founded in AD autocephalous since AD.

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of Bulgaria like the other national branches of the Orthodox communion and is considered a dominating element of Bulgarian national consciousness.

The church was abolished once, during the period of Ottoman rule — , in it was revived as Bulgarian Exarchate and soon after raised again to Bulgarian Patriarchate.

The Orthodox Bulgarian minorities in the Republic of Macedonia , Serbia, Greece , Albania, Ukraine and Moldova nowadays hold allegiance to the respective national Orthodox churches.

Despite the position of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church as a unifying symbol for all Bulgarians, small groups of Bulgarians have converted to other faiths through the course of time.

During Ottoman rule, a substantial number of Bulgarians converted to Islam, forming the community of the Pomaks or Muslim Bulgarians.

Nowadays there are some 40, Roman Catholic Bulgarians in Bulgaria, additional 10, in the Banat in Romania and up to , people of Bulgarian ancestry in South America.

The Roman Catholic Bulgarians of the Banat are also descendants of Paulicians who fled there at the end of the 17th century after an unsuccessful uprising against the Ottomans.

Protestantism was introduced in Bulgaria by missionaries from the United States in Missionary work continued throughout the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century.

Nowadays there are some 25, Protestant Bulgarians in Bulgaria. Boris Christoff , Nicolai Ghiaurov , Raina Kabaivanska and Ghena Dimitrova made a precious contribution to opera singing with Ghiaurov and Christoff being two of the greatest bassos in the post-war period.

The name of the harpist- Anna-Maria Ravnopolska-Dean is one of the best-known harpists today. Bulgarians have made valuable contributions to world culture in modern times as well.

Julia Kristeva and Tzvetan Todorov were among the most influential European philosophers in the second half of the 20th century.

The artist Christo is among the most famous representatives of environmental art with projects such as the Wrapped Reichstag.

Bulgarians in the diaspora have also been active. American scientists and inventors of Bulgarian descent include John Atanasoff , Peter Petroff , and Assen Jordanoff.

Bulgarian-American Stephane Groueff wrote the celebrated book " Manhattan Project ", about the making of the first atomic bomb and also penned "Crown of Thorns", a biography of Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria.

According to Mensa International , Bulgaria ranks 2nd in the world in Mensa IQ test-scores and its students rate second in the world in SAT scores.

Famous for its rich salads required at every meal, Bulgarian cuisine is also noted for the diversity and quality of dairy products and the variety of local wines and alcoholic beverages such as rakia , mastika and menta.

Bulgarian cuisine features also a variety of hot and cold soups, an example of a cold soup being tarator.

There are many different Bulgarian pastries as well such as banitsa. Most Bulgarian dishes are oven baked, steamed, or in the form of stew.

Deep-frying is not very typical, but grilling—especially different kinds of meats—is very common. Pork meat is the most common meat in the Bulgarian cuisine.

Oriental dishes do exist in Bulgarian cuisine with most common being moussaka , gyuvetch, and baklava. It is the main ingredient in many salads, as well as in a variety of pastries.

Fish and chicken are widely eaten and while beef is less common as most cattle are bred for milk production rather than meat, veal is a natural byproduct of this process and it is found in many popular recipes.

Bulgaria is a net exporter of lamb and its own consumption of the meat is prevalent during its production time in spring.

Bulgarians may celebrate Saint Theodore's Day with horse racings. At Easter the first egg is painted red and is kept for a whole year.

On the Baptism of Jesus a competition to catch the cross in the river is held and is believed the sky is "opened" and any wish will be fulfilled.

Bulgarians as well as Albanians nod the head up and down to indicates "no" and shake to indicate "yes". Alternatively, one can take off the martenitsa earlier if one sees a stork considered a harbinger of spring.

One can then tie the martenitsa to the blossoming branch of a tree. Family-members and friends in Bulgaria customarily exchange martenitsas, which they regard as symbols of health and longevity.

When a stork is seen, the martenitsa should be left on a tree. InterContinental Sofia. Aqua Paradise Resort.

Hotel Riu Helios Bay. Grifid Club Hotel Arabella. Premier Fort Beach Hotel. Old Sailor. Serenity Beach Bar.

Steak House Krivata Lipa. Steak-House Poco Loco Albena. Khan's Tent. Bistro b' Arkiveret fra originalen 8. Bloomberg Businessweek. Hentet 1.

Yahoo News. Al Jazeera. Hentet 7. Sofia News Agency. Deutsche Welle. Hauser Global Law School Program. August Bulgarian National Radio. Arkiveret fra originalen 1.

Ministry of Interior of Bulgaria. Vsekiden bulgarsk. State Agency for National Security. Council of European Municipalities and Regions. Arkiveret fra originalen 4.

Ministry of Regional Development. Hentet 5. The Green Papers Worldwide. European Commission. Vesti bulgarsk.

Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, U. Department of State. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC.

Southeast European Times. Military Bases". Foreign Policy. Maj Ministry of Defence of Bulgaria. The Military Balance Sofia University. The World Bank Group.

Bulgaria gave the highest priority to scientific and technological advancement and the development of trade skills appropriate to an industrial state.

In approximately 80 percent of the population drew their living from the soil, but by less than one-fifth of the labour force was engaged in agriculture, with the rest concentrated in industry and the service sector.

Januar The previous Economic Survey of Bulgaria documented how a combination of difficult initial conditions, delays in structural reforms, National Statistical Institute.

Bulgarian National Bank. Xinhua News Agency. Transparency International. Business Anti-Corruption Portal. GAN Integrity Solutions.

Deutsche Bank Research. Economist Intelligence Unit. In particular, offset arrangements linked to the contract of Daimler Germany to supply vehicles to the Bulgarian armed forces have been boosting the local automotive parts sector.

Oxford Business Group. Energy Information Administration. China Post. Food and Agriculture Organization. OECD Library. The Guardian. Lonely Planet.

Nauka bulgarsk 1. Innovation Union Competitiveness Report Radiation Protection Dosimetry. Acta Astronautica. Space Research Institute. Space Research in Bulgaria bulgarsk.

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences via the Marin Drinov publishing house. CERN press office. IBM Press Room. AETs Kozloduy EAD.

ENS News European Wind Energy Association. Railway Gazette International. Standart bulgarsk. RIA Novosti. Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples.

University of Toronto Press. University Directory. Ministry of Education, Youth and Science of Bulgaria.

Parliament of Bulgaria. The Ecumenical Patriarchate. Wildside Press LLC. Religion and power in Europe: conflict and convergence.

Pisa University Press. Hürriyet Daily News. Agence France-Presse. Health Systems in Transition. European observatory on health systems and policies.

Econ Online Magazine. Arkiveret fra originalen 5. Migration In, From, and to Southeastern Europe. The British Library. Arkiveret fra originalen 6.

National Geographic Magazine.

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